World War I

7 The Best Aircraft that Aired During World War I

War becomes a field of proof for the countries involved to produce the best weapons. One of the guns that are relied upon is a fighter plane.

During World War I, the development of aircraft was not as sophisticated as it is now. The aircraft is identical to the monoplane or biplane wing and the propeller in front of it.

However, in the early eras, this aircraft could not be underestimated. Therefore, the aircraft can be relied upon by the country of manufacture. Here are nine of the best aircraft during World War I:

1. Sopwith Camel

Sopwith Camel is arguably the most iconic aircraft during the war. Its uniqueness is on the front of the aircraft which has metal fairing to cover the weapons and keep them from freezing at altitude. The metal is the main characteristic of this aircraft. Supported by the Clerget 9B rotary engine, Camel’s design drives its twin Vickers machine guns to shoot and unobstructed propellers.

Besides, Camel is also produced to be able to do close combat, night battle, and can stop in the aircraft carrier. Thanks to its sophistication, this aircraft is still used after the war ended.


British and French troops also needed reliable aircraft in World War I. One of them was the SPAD S.VII fighter aircraft produced by Societe Pour L’Aviation et ses Derives. This aircraft uses the Hispano-Suiza 8A engine and is operated exclusively for one person.

When in the air, the aircraft is capable of flying at speeds of 191 kilometers per hour and is a competitor of aircraft made in Germany. SPAD is also able to attack enemies at a distance of about hundreds of kilometers. In terms of weaponry, this aircraft uses a Vickers 303 machine gun known as the most capable weapon in World War I.

3. Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5

Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5 has differences with other aircraft. In some flight experiments, this aircraft passed the speed limit of up to 482 kilometers per hour. It is not surprising that this bird is often described as “World War I Fire.”

This aircraft uses the Hispano-Suiza 8 engine. In its flight experiments, the pilot driving it died in an air crash. However, after being repaired and providing security to the pilots, S.E.S was recorded to be able to surpass all aircraft in the European sky at that time.

In terms of weaponry, this aircraft uses Vickers machine guns, Lewis guns in the upper wing, and also cooper bombs.

4. Fokker D VII

The Fokker D VII aircraft might have been a bit late in entering the war, namely in January 1918. However, this does not mean that this “iron bird” was not successful in carrying out its mission in the field. Reinhold Platz designed Fokker D VII from Fokker-Flugzeugwerke. The aircraft quickly proved to the world that it was able to fly in the European sky well until the end of the war. Equipped with a Mercedes D.IIIa engine, Fokker’s performance defeated most of the other World War I aircraft. Its maximum speed is 188 kilometers per hour, and it is asked to be faster than similar aircraft.

This German flagship aircraft is capable of flying as high as 6,096 meters and can operate freely in the air. For weaponry, this aircraft is equipped with two 7.92 mm LMG 08/15 Spandau machine guns. No wonder this plane gave fear to Allied forces.

5. Bristol M.1. Monoplane Scout

This aircraft was developed in the Bristol aircraft company by legendary designer Frank Barnwell. Bristol M.1 is one of the unique monoplanes in World War I. This aircraft appeared in the mid-war, namely July 1916. Bristol M.1 uses the construction of the wood, fabric, and reinforced with cables capable of binding aircraft construction. M.1 spent most of the war in the Balkans, where British troops used it well and became a phenomenon due to its distinctive design.

The unique design of Bristol M.1 is increasingly popular as a personal mount for high ranking military officers. The speed of this aircraft reaches 209 kilometers per hour. Only a handful of planes remain to this day.

6. Ansaldo A.1 Balilla

Ansaldo A.1 Balilla aircraft designed in Italy became the country’s national pride. “Balilla” is the name of the hero of the Genoese people, and the aircraft played an important role in the rebellion against Hapsburg in 1746. The need for war and a suitable aircraft caused Ansaldo’s company to design this aircraft with their 6A SPA 6A piston engine capable of producing 220 horsepower.

The aircraft was able to fly with a top speed of 225 kilometers per hour and reach more than 650 kilometers. Weapons using two Vickers machine guns are almost the same as similar aircraft. Balilla also served in Greek and Polish forces and was used by the newly formed Soviet military.

7. Pfalz D.III

Pfalz D.III appeared late in the war, but the delay became more advantage in aircraft development over the following years. Inspired by the Morane-Saulnier monoplane, D.III is an attempt to produce fighter designs from previous versions.

This aircraft uses a six-cylinder Mercedes D.IIIa that was explicitly made to produce 160 horsepower. The aircraft is capable of flying at speeds of more than 160 kilometers per hour. In just seven minutes, the aircraft was able to fly to an altitude of 1,524 meters. Although widely used by the German and Ottoman armed forces, no D.III aircraft survives to this day. However, many replicas have been built for film production.

8 Most Deadly Weapons Used in World War I

World War I was known as the beginning of a major war because of the use of several deadly weapons. At that time the two warring sides showed their best weapons. Weapons used ranging from heavy weapons, machine guns, to chemical weapons used in this war. The goal is just for the sake of victory. The death toll, which is also a lot of civilians, seems to be ignored. The following are deadly weapons in World War I:

1. U-Boat 93

The U-Boat 93 was one of the deadliest weapons used during World War I. The German Imperial Navy-owned this submarine. Its name comes from Unterseeboot, which means underwater ship. Kaiserliche Marine built type 93. The U-type 93 submarine carries 16 torpedoes and has a weapons arrangement.

In 1917 several submarines were refitted with a 10.5 cm pistol with a force of 220 rounds. These ships have a capacity of accommodating 39 crew members and are equipped with excellent sailing capabilities with a cruising range of around 17,000 km. This submarine sank about 3 percent of Allied arms shipments via sea lane. They also succeeded in damaging and capturing Allied ships during World War I. Because of its success, this type of submarine was finally used in World War II with some more modern weapons modifications.

2. Airships

Airships or air balloons are types of airplanes that are lighter than other types of aircraft. This airship was used before the start of the war, but it was during the war that its debut as an air weapon began. Zeppelin was one of the first airships used in the war. This aircraft was created by Count von Zeppelin, a retired German army officer.

At the beginning of the war, the Germans used Zeppelin filled with hydrogen, capable of traveling about 136 kilometers per hour and carrying 2 tons of bombs. Resistance against the British began in January 1915. The Germans believed that their aircraft were the ideal weapon against the superiority of the British Navy. The Germans used it at first to damage the mentality of British troops.

When the war took place, this airship was able to damage several cities in England. The British then use the floodlights at night to identify these blimps. Also, flammable hydrogen is a weakness of Zeppelin. World War I was not only focused on the development of firearms but also weapons made from chemicals.

3. Tear Gas

Tear gas is not designed to kill but makes enemies unable to defend their position. Tear gas also opens the way for the use of more lethal chemicals such as chlorine. Besides, tear gas can affect the eyes and lungs, and the effect disappears within 30 minutes afterward.

4. Phosgene

Phosgene is a chemical in the next era that was used with chlorine. These chemicals can cause a buildup of fluid in the lungs, causing death. It takes around 48 hours for the main symptoms to appear. It is estimated that as many as 85 percents of the 91,000 deaths caused by gas during wartime are the result of phosphagen. This toxic gas causes more psychological trauma than death. Chlorarsin in war causes short-term, but intense respiratory distress.

These chemicals are designed to paralyze temporarily, so they are used to frighten enemy troops. Although the effect does not cause death, the use of this weapon is very effective. In addition, there is also mustard gas which has a big impact on the skin and lungs. Mustard gas cannot be easily detected unless under direct attack.

During the war, Germany used the first mustard gas in 1917. After finding several attacks using gas, the Allies named it Hot Stuff (HS). When Germany used gas, it turned out that gas masks proved inefficient. This gas can penetrate through the filter mask.

5. Mark V Tank

Mark V Tank is the last and largest tank in World War I owned by Britain. This is a modified version of Mark IV. Around 1,070 tanks were built in March 1919. Mark V has external features embedded in Mark IV, including hulls, rollers, and tracks to avoid interference. However, the new drivetrain and transmission were stronger and were ready during early 1917. This system included a petrol-electric scheme, a hydraulic system, a double-clutch system (one driver needed), and the epicyclic Wilson gearbox design (4 forward gears, one reverse).

This tank uses a new Ricardo 6-cylinder engine and is more powerful. For speed, the Mark V can walk 70 km with a fuel capacity of 450 liters, which is enough for about 10 hours on rough terrain. Mark V made his combat debut at the Battle of Hamel on 4 July 1918 where he succeeded in supporting Australian troops in action.

6. Maxim Rifle

The firearms revolution occurred in the 19th century. At that time, the manufacture of firearms was supported by adequate equipment. In 1884, a lawyer named Hiram Maxim combined all the stuff at that time so that he could make a weapon called the Maxim rifle. This weapon has an air conditioner that can fire more than 500 revolutions per minute at an effective distance of more than 2,000 yards (1,830 meters). This weapon was used in World War I.

During the Battle of the Somme on 1 July 1916 in just one day, the British lost 21,000 people largely due to the use of this rifle. The MG 08 variant was used throughout the war and even during the last years of the Second World War.

7. Fokker

Fokker Triplane is one of the famous planes of the First World War. The construction of this aircraft was the German response to the emergence of the famous British Soplan Triplane. This aircraft was flown by a German mainstay pilot, by Ace Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen. The legendary pilot is also known as the Red Baron. At least more than 70 allied pilots were successfully overthrown.

IMG 1 - Fokker

This aircraft has three wings attached to the fuselage with a propeller in front of it. Powered by a 110 hp engine, the Fokker Triplane is armed with two 0.31-inch LMG 08/15 weapons.

8. Big Bertha

Big Bertha during its construction was the largest and most powerful artillery used by Germany. This weapon used a 420-millimeter caliber and was used in 1914. At the beginning of the war, German troops had two Big Berthas. A total of around 12 began to be used during the war. The muzzle cannon fires up to 1,785 pounds to a distance of around 9 kilometers.

This weapon attack can penetrate up to 12 meters, both concrete and other obstructions. The name Big Bertha is inspired by Bertha Krupp von Bohlen und Holbach, the owner of the Krupp company that makes weapons.

Causes of World War I

Throughout the history of humanity, this world has experienced two major wars involving major countries, namely World War I and World War II. Although in some regions, there is no war, the impact can be felt throughout the world.

The outbreak of World War I

World War I took place in Europe in 1914-1918, which involved two major powers, namely the Central Block and the Allied Bloc. The central block consists of Germany, Austria, and Hungary. While the Allied Bloc was made up of France, Britain, and Russia, which in 1972 gained new power from the United States.

World War I began with a small dispute between European countries. After that, it gradually became a big war after Pengeran Frans Ferdinand was killed by nationalists from Serbia in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. World War I broke out on 1 August 1914.

In addition to disputes between countries in Europe as a factor in the occurrence of World War I, there are allegations that competition in the economic and trade sectors is also the cause of World War I so that the expression “the cause of the war is made in Germany.” That is, goods made in Germany are the cause of trade competition which results in war.

In January 1917, Germany announced a never-ending submarine war. This announcement continued the German policy in 1915 concerning the attack on all ships. In this case, five US ships sank in April 1917. Soon after that, the US declared war on the Central Powers. At this time, the US was led by President Woodrow Wilson, who was famous for the idea of ​​Wilson’s Fourteen Points which was the basis of just world peace. The contents of Wilson’s declaration, among others, stop secret negotiations between the state, freedom at sea, the existence of self-government and prosperous and equitable economic life.

In World War I, there is a strategy of trench warfare where in this war strategy is to dig the elongated soil in the form of a trench to protect against enemy attacks. World War I lasted for four years, adversely affecting human life. Counted there were 8.4 million people died from both sides. The number is not yet with the injured and disabled. The war also caused damage to buildings and social confusion in European countries.

World War I ended with the Treaty of Versailles in France on June 28, 1919. The countries that won World War I was called The Big Four, namely Italy, France, Britain, and the United States. The four countries acted as determinants of the Versailles treaty while the Germans defeated in World War I was required to pay war losses.

World War I inspired Woodrow Wilson to form a world peace organization called the League of Nations. He was worried that the PDI-winning countries would try to dominate other countries which should have determined their destiny. But the League of Nations failed, and the US refused to become a member.